Chronology of Early Scholars of Islam
(Caliphs from Sahabah, Isna-'Ashari(12)Imams, Fiqh Imams, Sihah-Sitta Imams, & others)

Compiled by Khalid Shaukat

The chronology presented here gives an understanding of the time difference and generation gaps of famous names in early Islamic history, e.g., Imam Abu-Hanifah was early enough to have seen Sahabah, while Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, and Imam Ahmad bin-Hambal had not met or seen any Sahabah. Compare the time frame of Imam Bokhari & Imam Muslim with those of Imam Malik or Imam Abu-Hanifah. See the times of 12 Imams of Isna-'ashari faith (The Twelvers).

Hadrat Abu-Bakar Siddiq 51 BH*/573 CE*, Makkah JMT 13, 634=Aug 23, 634(Tue), Medinah First Caliph (Khalifah) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Khalifatur-Rasool
Hadrat Umar ibn al-Khattab 41 BH/582 Makkah 24 AH/645 Medinah Second Caliph (Khalifah), Title "Ameerul-Momineen" was first adopted
Hadrat Uthman ibn Affaan 47 BH/577 Makkah 35 AH/655 Medinah Ameerul-Momineen, Third Caliph (Khalifah)
Hadrat Ali ibn Abi-Taalib (1) 13 Rajab 23BH/600 Makkah 21 Ramadhan 40AH/661 Kufah Ameerul-Momineen, Fourth Caliph (Khalifah)
Imam Hasan ibn Ali (2) 15 Ramadan 3 AH/Feb 28, 625 (Thursday) Medinah Safar 49 or 50 AH/669 or 670 Medinah Ameerul-Momineen (5th Khalifah), First son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), was probably poisoned
Mo'awiah ibn Abi-Sufian 12 BH/611 Makkah 60 AH/680 Dimashq 6th Khalifah (Brother-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh))
Imam Husain ibn Ali (3) 3 Sha'ban 4 AH/Jan 8, 626 (Wednesday) Medinah 10 Muharram 61 AH/Oct 9, 680 (Tuesday) Karbala, Iraq Shaheed-e-Karbala, Second son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen (4) 5 Sha'ban 38 AH/Jan 5, 659 (Saturday) Medinah 25 Muharram 95 AH/Oct 20, 713 (Friday) Medinah Son of Imam Husain
Imam Muhammad Baqir (5) 1 Rajab 57 AH/May 9, 677 (Saturday) Medinah 7 Zul-Hijja 114 AH/Jan 28, 733 (Wednesday) Medinah Son of Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen
Imam Abu-Hanifah, Imam-1 80 AH/699 Kufah, Iraq 150 AH/767 Baghdad Taabai, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Baqir & Imam Ja'far Sadiq
Imam Ja'far Sadiq (6) 17 Rabi-al-Awwal 83 AH/April 10, 702 (Monday) Medinah 25 Shawwal 148 AH/Dec 13, 765 (Friday) Medinah Taabai, Son of Imam Baqir. He was Imam of Fiqh Ja'fri (Jurisprudence)
Imam Maalik, Imam-2 93 AH/712 Medinah 179 AH/795 Medinah Taba-Taabai, Compiler of Hadith & Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Ja'far Sadiq
Imam Abu-Yusuf (Hanafi) 113 AH/731 Kufah, Iraq 187 AH/803 Baghdad Taba-Taabai, Student of Abu-Hanifah, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Up to the time of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, friends of Ali (Shi'aan-e-Ali) were not considered any different from other Muslims. Imam Ja'far Sadiq had two sons, Isma'il and Musa al-Kazim. Followers of Isma'il become the "Seveners" or "Ismailis. Followers of Musa al-Kazim become the "Twelvers" who believed that the lineage of Imam continued with Imam Musa al-Kazim. Beginning of Shi'ism was not documented before this time, but long after, when the concept of 12 Imams became the basis of Shi'as after the 12th Imam's disappearance in 878 CE.
Imam Musa Kazim (7) 7 Safar 129 AH/Oct 27, 745 (Thurs) al-Abwa, 7 mi from Medinah 25 Rajab 183 AH/Sep 1, 799 (Sunday) Kadhimiya Son of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, died in prison
Imam Muhammad (Hanafi) 132 AH/750 Wasit, Iraq 189 AH/805 Baghdad Student of Imam Maalik, and Imam Abu-Yusuf (Jurisprudence)
Imam Shafi'i, Imam-3 150 AH/767 Ghaza 204 AH/819 Egypt Student of Imam Maalik (Jurisprudence)
Imam Ali Reza (8) 11 Zul-Qa'da 153 AH/Nov 4, 770 (Sunday) Medinah 17 Safar 203 AH/Aug 24, 818 (Tuesday) Mash'had, Iran Son of Imam Musa Kazim
Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal, Imam-4 164 AH/780 Baghdad 241 AH/855 Baghdad Student of Imam Shafi'i, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi (9) 10 Rajab 195 AH/April 8, 811 (Tuesday) Medinah 30 Zul-Qa'da 220 AH/Nov 26, 835 (Friday) Kadhimiya Son of Imam Ali Reza
Imam Ali Naqi (10) 5 Rajab 215 AH/Aug 28, 830 (Sunday) Surba, Iraq 3 Rajab 254 AH/June 28, 868 (Monday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi
Imam Hasan Askari (11) 8 Rabi-al-Thani 232 AH/Dec 1, 846 (Wednesday) Samarra, Iraq 8 Rabi-al-Awwal 260 AH/Jan 1, 874 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Ali Naqi
Imam Muhammad Mahdi (12) 15 Sha'ban 255 AH/July 29, 869 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Disappeared at age 9 in 878 CE Son of Imam Hasan Askari. Followers of Isna-'ashari faith (The Twelvers) believe that he is still alive, hiding, and will re-appear near Judgment Day to establish Kingdom of Allah, to fill the world with equality and justice.
Imam Bokhari 194 AH/810 Bukhara 256 AH/870 Samarqand Compiler of most authentic Hadith book
Imam Muslim 206 AH/821 Nishapur, Iran 261 AH/875 Nishapur, Iran Compiler of very authentic Hadith book
Imam Abu-Daood 202 AH/817 Sindh-Kabul 275 AH/889 Basrah, Iraq Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Ibn Maja 209 AH/824 Qazween, Iraq 273 AH/887 Qazween, Iraq Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Tirmidhi 209 AH/824 Tirmidh, Balkh 279 AH/892 Tirmidh, Balkh Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Nasaai 214 AH/829 Khurasan, Iran 303 AH/915 Egypt Scholar and Compiler of Hadith

BH = Before Hijra
AH = After Hijra
CE = Common Era
Chronolgy for Caliphs from Sahabah is basically taken from "Khilafate-e-Islamia" by Abdul-Quddoos Hashmi, Page 29.
Isna-Ash'ari Imams chronology is basically taken from "Millat-e-Islamia ki Mukhtasar Tareekh" by Sarwat Saulat, Page 157.
Chronology for Fiqh Imams is taken from "Tazkira Imam Abu-Hanifah" by Jamil Ahmad Sharqpuri, various pages.